1.Hypatia of Alexandria was the first notable woman in

mathematics.

2.Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (c.780-850) was

a Persian mathematician, a scholar in the House of Wisdom

in Baghdad. He wrote ‘Al-jabr(=reunion of broken parts)

w’al muqabala’ It is a first book about Algebra.

3.”The Treviso Arithmetic’ ‘ is an anonymous text book in

commercial arithmetic, written in vernacular Venetian and

published in Treviso, Italy in 1478. It is the earliest known

printed mathematics book in the West.

4.Simon Stevin was a Flemish mathematician. He introduced

the use of decimal fraction in maths.

5.John Vincent Atanasoff invented the first electronic digital

computer in 1930 at the lowa State College.

6.Alfred Marshall used mathematics in Economics.

7.John Napier invented the so-called ”Napier Bones” and made

common the use of the decimal point in arithmetics and

mathematics.He wrote ”Rabdology”(in Latin) in 1617.

He first described the decimal point enabling calculation

to be made. The treatise ‘Rabdology’ contains the earliest

reference to the decimal point (though its usage would not come

into general use for another century)

8.Francois Viete (1540-1603)in his treatise ”Isagoge in Artem

Analyticem(1591), he disclosed the way to modern symbolic

algebra. His major contribution is the innovative treatment of

algebraic equations.

9.The equal symbol(=) was first invented by Robert Recorde.

10.Hipparchus is considered the founder of trigonometry.

He constructed trigonometric tables and solved several

problems of spherical trigonometry.

11.Pierre de Fermat was a French lawyer and amateur

mathematician. With his gift for number relations and his ability

to find proofs for many of his theorems, he created the modern

theory of numbers.

12.Daniel Bernoulli(1700-1782) was a Swiss mathematician and

physicist. He is known as the ”father of physics in maths”.

He applied mathematics to mechanics especially fluid

mechanics. He is also remembered for his pioneering works

in probability and mathematics. Bernoulli’s principle states

that as the speed of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) increases

the pressure within the fluid decreases.

13.Herodotus speaks of Geometry as the gift of Nile.

14.Pythagorus said number rules the world.

15.Gerbert who became Pope after the death of Gregory

in 999, was a mathematician.

16.G.B.Leibniz developed the infinitesimal calculus.

He was a German mathematician and philosopher.

17.William Oughtred and others developed slide rule

in the 17th century.Before we had calculators, we had

slide rules. The circular and rectangular slide rules were

invented by Episcopalian minister and mathematician

William Oughtred.

18.Beam Compass help make accurate measurements

and inscribe high quality circles on a variety of surface types.

It is a compass with a beam and sliding sockets or cursors

for drawing and dividing circles larger than those made by a

regular pair of compasses. The compact self measuring

Beam Compass draws circles or arcs with a 3-1/2 to 72 radius.

19.Sextant is an astronomical instrument which is used to measure

the angle of the sun above the horizon. The first sextant was

constructed in Ray, Iran by Abu -Mahmud al-Khujandi in 994C.E.

20.Abacus also called Counting Frame is a calculating tool that was

in use centuries before the adoption of the written modern numeral

system and is still widely used by merchants, traders and clerks

in Asia/Africa and elsewhere.

21. The Book of Changes is quite possibly the oldest book in the

world. It contains description and commentaries about 64 hexagrams

each of which is uniquely identified by a number and name.

22.Ramachandralal was a British Indian mathematician. He

thought of a way to use algebra to solve all types of problems

that involve maxima and minima and published a book on the subject.

He wrote ”A treatise on the problems of Maxima and Minima” in 1850.

Source:Translation of Kannada book ”Bhrata Parichaya.” A second

book, ”A Specimen of a New Method of the Differential Calculas:

Called the Method of Constant Ratios” was published in Calcutta

in 1863.

Source: Translation of the Kannada book,”Bharata parichaya”

-Author:Sadashiva M.