1.Hypatia of Alexandria was the first notable woman in
2.Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (c.780-850) was
a Persian mathematician, a scholar in the House of Wisdom
in Baghdad. He wrote ‘Al-jabr(=reunion of broken parts)
w’al muqabala’ It is a first book about Algebra.
3.”The Treviso Arithmetic’ ‘ is an anonymous text book in
commercial arithmetic, written in vernacular Venetian and
published in Treviso, Italy in 1478. It is the earliest known
printed mathematics book in the West.
4.Simon Stevin was a Flemish mathematician. He introduced
the use of decimal fraction in maths.
5.John Vincent Atanasoff invented the first electronic digital
computer in 1930 at the lowa State College.
6.Alfred Marshall used mathematics in Economics.
7.John Napier invented the so-called ”Napier Bones” and made
common the use of the decimal point in arithmetics and
mathematics.He wrote ”Rabdology”(in Latin) in 1617.
He first described the decimal point enabling calculation
to be made. The treatise ‘Rabdology’ contains the earliest
reference to the decimal point (though its usage would not come
into general use for another century)
8.Francois Viete (1540-1603)in his treatise ”Isagoge in Artem
Analyticem(1591), he disclosed the way to modern symbolic
algebra. His major contribution is the innovative treatment of
9.The equal symbol(=) was first invented by Robert Recorde.
10.Hipparchus is considered the founder of trigonometry.
He constructed trigonometric tables and solved several
problems of spherical trigonometry.
11.Pierre de Fermat was a French lawyer and amateur
mathematician. With his gift for number relations and his ability
to find proofs for many of his theorems, he created the modern
theory of numbers.
12.Daniel Bernoulli(1700-1782) was a Swiss mathematician and
physicist. He is known as the ”father of physics in maths”.
He applied mathematics to mechanics especially fluid
mechanics. He is also remembered for his pioneering works
in probability and mathematics. Bernoulli’s principle states
that as the speed of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) increases
the pressure within the fluid decreases.
13.Herodotus speaks of Geometry as the gift of Nile.
14.Pythagorus said number rules the world.
15.Gerbert who became Pope after the death of Gregory
in 999, was a mathematician.
16.G.B.Leibniz developed the infinitesimal calculus.
He was a German mathematician and philosopher.
17.William Oughtred and others developed slide rule
in the 17th century.Before we had calculators, we had
slide rules. The circular and rectangular slide rules were
invented by Episcopalian minister and mathematician
18.Beam Compass help make accurate measurements
and inscribe high quality circles on a variety of surface types.
It is a compass with a beam and sliding sockets or cursors
for drawing and dividing circles larger than those made by a
regular pair of compasses. The compact self measuring
Beam Compass draws circles or arcs with a 3-1/2 to 72 radius.
19.Sextant is an astronomical instrument which is used to measure
the angle of the sun above the horizon. The first sextant was
constructed in Ray, Iran by Abu -Mahmud al-Khujandi in 994C.E.
20.Abacus also called Counting Frame is a calculating tool that was
in use centuries before the adoption of the written modern numeral
system and is still widely used by merchants, traders and clerks
in Asia/Africa and elsewhere.
21. The Book of Changes is quite possibly the oldest book in the
world. It contains description and commentaries about 64 hexagrams
each of which is uniquely identified by a number and name.
22.Ramachandralal was a British Indian mathematician. He
thought of a way to use algebra to solve all types of problems
that involve maxima and minima and published a book on the subject.
He wrote ”A treatise on the problems of Maxima and Minima” in 1850.
Source:Translation of Kannada book ”Bhrata Parichaya.” A second
book, ”A Specimen of a New Method of the Differential Calculas:
Called the Method of Constant Ratios” was published in Calcutta
Source: Translation of the Kannada book,”Bharata parichaya”