Colour Qualities.

Red:Symbolic of  heat, fire and anger and also the

circulation of the blood. Used by some therapists

to cure paralysis and any blood ailments.

Orange:Symbolic of  prosperity and sometimes

pride. Used to increase the pulse rate, stimulate

the milk  producing action of the breast after

childbirth, dispel kidney and gallstones and treat

hernias and appendicitis.

Yellow:Associated with joy and happiness and also

the intellect. This colour  provides energy for the

lymphatic system and used to treat diabetes,

indigestion, kidney and liver ailments, constipation

and some eye and throat infections.

Green:Usually applied in the emerald hue, this colour

is used to treat nervous conditions, hay fever, ulcers,

influenza,syphilis, malaria and colds. Therapists regard

green as the colour of  harmony.

Blue:A cool colour, associated in some mystical systems

with the throat chakra. Used to alleviate pain, reduce

bleeding, heal burns and treat  dysentery, colic,

respiratory  problems and rheumatism.

Indigo:A purifying colour associated with the pituitary

gland and the energy centre in the forehead. It is used

to heal cataracts, migraines, deafness and skin disorders.

It exerts a soothing effect on the eyes, ears and nervous


Violet:Associated with psychic and spiritual power.

It is applied in treating nervous and emotional

disturbances, arthritis and in easing childbirth. With

green and yellow, it may be used to treat incipient

skin cancer.



One line quotes.

1.Rashness and haste makes all things insecure.

2.Language is the dress of thought.

3.One flower does not make a garland.

4.Victory belongs to the most persevering.

5.He who begins many things finishes nothing.

6.If  the blind leads the blind, both shall fall

into the ditch.

7.For the love of money is the root of all evil.

8.Laugh if you are wise.

9.Blessed are the meek ; for they shall inherit

the earth.

10.Without labour, nothing prospers.

11.Vote should be weighed not counted.

12.A picture is a poem without words.

13.We are each responsible for our own happiness.

14.Age measures also experience.

15.It is better to bend than to break.

16. wealth and wisdom do not mix.

17.There is no gambling like politics.

18. Education begins with life.

19.To err is human, to persists in error is devilish.

20.An injury is much sooner forgotten than an insult.

21.Eat to please thyself  but dress to please others.

22.Fame is the perfume of  heroic deeds.

23.No man can serve two masters.

24.Faith is the continuation of  reason.

25.Charms strike the sight but merit wins the soul.

26.Evil befalls him who doeth evil.

27.Keep your mind pure in the battlefield of life.

28.Real beauty is the beauty of  soul.

29. Flattery corrupts both the receiver and the giver.

30.Study serves for delight, for ornament and for ability.

31.Wit is the salt of conversation, not the food.

32. Life is not a spectacle; it is a predicament.

33. Thinking is the talking of the soul with itself.

34. Virtue is its own reward.

35.Sympathy is the key that fits the lock  of  any heart.

36.Happiness is not perfected until it is shared.

37. Be sure you are right; then go ahead.

38. Worry is interest paid on  trouble before it is due.

39. He who trusts his secrets to a servant, makes him master.

40.The unspoken word never does harm.

41.In victory the hero seeks the glory, not the prey.

42.The right thing to do is to do the right at any cost.

43.Begin, not with  a programme, but with a deed.

44.A merry heart maketh a cheerful countenance.

45.Things do not change, we change.

46.Not happy now, will never be.

47.Laws grind the poor and rich men rule the law.

48.Laws are dumb in the midst of arms.

49.Beauty is  a short-lived reign.

50.Lawless are they who make their  wills their law.

51.The secret of success is constancy in purpose.

52.The shame is in the crime, not in the punishment.

53.Life is not life at all  without delight.

54.People do not lack strength; they lack will.

55. Silence is one great art of conversation.

56.Figures won’t lie, but liars will figure.

57.Gratitude is the memory of the heart.

58.Better to be harmless, than helpful.

59.Blessed are the merciful; for, they shall obtain mercy.

60.Our attitudes govern our destiny.

61.Vengeance has no foresight.

62.Beggars  must not be choosers.

63. Human nature is greedy of  novelty.

64.He who serves the poor is great in the eyes of God.

65.Music is the medicine of  breaking heart.


All about mathematics.

1.Hypatia of Alexandria was the first notable  woman in


2.Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (c.780-850) was

a Persian mathematician, a scholar in the House of Wisdom

in Baghdad. He wrote ‘Al-jabr(=reunion of broken parts)

w’al muqabala’ It is a first book about Algebra.

3.”The Treviso Arithmetic’ ‘ is an anonymous text book in

commercial arithmetic, written in vernacular Venetian and

published in Treviso, Italy in 1478. It is the earliest  known

printed mathematics book in the West.

4.Simon Stevin  was a  Flemish mathematician. He introduced

the use of  decimal fraction  in maths.

5.John Vincent Atanasoff  invented the first  electronic digital

computer in 1930 at the lowa State College.

6.Alfred Marshall used mathematics in Economics.

7.John Napier invented  the so-called ”Napier Bones” and made

common the use of the decimal point in arithmetics and

mathematics.He wrote ”Rabdology”(in Latin) in 1617.

He first described the decimal point enabling calculation

to be made. The treatise ‘Rabdology’ contains the earliest

reference to the decimal point (though its usage  would not come

into general use for another century)

8.Francois Viete (1540-1603)in his treatise ”Isagoge in Artem

Analyticem(1591), he disclosed the way to modern symbolic

algebra. His major contribution  is the innovative treatment of

algebraic equations.

9.The equal symbol(=) was first invented by Robert Recorde.

10.Hipparchus is considered the founder of trigonometry.

He constructed trigonometric tables and solved several

problems of spherical trigonometry.

11.Pierre de Fermat was a French lawyer and amateur

mathematician. With his gift for number relations and his ability

to find proofs for many of  his theorems, he created the modern

theory of numbers.

12.Daniel Bernoulli(1700-1782) was a Swiss mathematician and

physicist. He is known as the ”father of physics in maths”.

He applied mathematics to mechanics especially fluid

mechanics. He is also remembered for his pioneering works

in probability and mathematics. Bernoulli’s principle states

that as  the speed of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) increases

the pressure within the fluid decreases.

13.Herodotus speaks of Geometry as the gift of Nile.

14.Pythagorus said number rules the world.

15.Gerbert who became Pope after the death of Gregory

in 999, was a mathematician.

16.G.B.Leibniz developed the infinitesimal calculus.

He was a German mathematician and philosopher.

17.William Oughtred and others developed slide rule

in the 17th century.Before we had calculators, we had

slide rules. The circular and rectangular slide rules were

invented by Episcopalian minister and mathematician

William Oughtred.

18.Beam Compass help make accurate measurements

and inscribe high quality circles on a variety of surface types.

It is a compass with a beam and sliding sockets or cursors

for drawing and dividing circles larger than those made by a

regular pair of compasses. The compact self measuring

Beam Compass draws circles or arcs with a 3-1/2 to 72 radius.

19.Sextant is an astronomical instrument which is used to measure

the angle of  the sun above the horizon. The first sextant was

constructed in Ray, Iran by Abu -Mahmud al-Khujandi in 994C.E.

20.Abacus also called Counting Frame is a calculating tool that was

in use centuries  before the adoption of the written modern numeral

system and is  still widely used by merchants, traders and clerks

in Asia/Africa and elsewhere.

21. The Book of Changes is quite possibly the oldest book in the

world. It contains description  and commentaries about 64 hexagrams

each of which is uniquely identified by a number and name.

22.Ramachandralal was a British Indian mathematician. He

thought of a way to use algebra to solve all types of problems

that involve maxima and minima and published a book on the subject.

He wrote ”A treatise on the problems of Maxima and Minima” in 1850.

Source:Translation of  Kannada book ”Bhrata Parichaya.” A second

book, ”A Specimen of a New Method of the Differential Calculas:

Called the Method of Constant Ratios” was published in Calcutta

in 1863.

Source: Translation of the Kannada book,”Bharata parichaya”

-Author:Sadashiva M.

ಕನ್ನಡ ಸೌರಭ.

ಸೊನ್ನೆಯನ್ನು ಜಗತ್ತಿಗೆ ಪರಿಚಯಿಸಿದವರು ಯಾರು ?
-ಭಾರತೀಯರು .
ಸಮ ಎಂಬುದಕ್ಕೆ =ಎಂಬ ಸಂಕೇತವನ್ನು ಯಾರು
ಪ್ರಥಮ ಬಾರಿಗೆ ಬಳಸಿದರು ?
-ರಾಬರ್ಟ್ ರೆಕಾರ್ಹ .
ಯಾವುದೇ ಸಂಖ್ಯೆಗೆ ಕೂಡಿದರೂ ಅದೇ ಸಂಖ್ಯೆ
ಬರುವಂತೆ ಮಾಡುವ ಸಂಖ್ಯೆ ಯಾವುದು ?
ಮೊದಲ ಮಹಿಳಾ ಗಣಿತಜ್ಞೆ ಯಾರು ?
‘ಲೀಲಾವತಿ’ ಎಂಬ ಸಂಸ್ಕೃತ ಭಾಷೆಯ ಗಣಿತ
ಗ್ರಂಥ ಕರ್ತೃ ಯಾರು?
-ಭಾಸ್ಕರಾಚಾರ್ಯ .
ಭಾರತದ ಮಾನವ ಕಂಪ್ಯೂಟರ್ ಯಾರು ?
-ಶಕುಂತಳಾ ದೇವಿ .
ಕೋನ ಗಳನ್ನು ಅಳೆಯಲು ಯಾವುದನ್ನು
ಬಳಸುತ್ತಾರೆ ?
-ಕೋನ ಮಾಪಕ.
”ಕನಸಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಆ ದೇವಿಯೇ ಬಂದು ನನ್ನ
ಸಮಸ್ಯೆ ಗಳನ್ನು ಪರಿಹರಿಸುತ್ತಾಳೆ ” ಎಂದು
ಹೇಳುತ್ತಿದ್ದ ಗಣಿತಜ್ಞ ಯಾರು?
-ಶ್ರೀನಿವಾಸ ರಾಮಾನುಜನ್ .
‘ಮೊಹೆಂಜದಾರೊ’ ಇದರ ಶಬ್ದಾರ್ಥವೇನು?
-ಶವಗಳ ಗುಡ್ಡ .
‘ವಂದೇ ಮಾತರಂ’ ಹಾಡನ್ನು ಯಾವ ಬಂಗಾಳ
ಕಾದಂಬರಿಯಿಂದ ಆರಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ ?
-‘ಆನಂದ ಮಠ’
ಇಂಗ್ಲಿಷ್ ಗೆ ಸಮೀಪದ ಆಧುನಿಕ ಭಾಷೆ ಗಳಾವುವು ?
-ಡಚ್,ಜರ್ಮನ್ ,ಸ್ಯಾಂಡಿ ನೇವಿಯನ್ ಮತ್ತು ಫ್ರೆಂಚ್.
ಗಾಂಧೀಜಿ ಯವರ ಆತ್ಮ ಕಥೆಯ ಶೀರ್ಷಿಕೆ ಏನು ?
-”My Experiment With Truth” .
ಮೂಲ: ”ಭಾರತ ಪರಿಚಯ”

ಕನ್ನಡ ಸೌರಭ.

ಹೊಸ ಗಾದೆ ಗಳು.
೧.ಗದ್ಯ ನಡ ಕೋತ ಬಂದರೆ ಪದ್ಯ ಕುಣಿ ಯೋತ ಬರುತ್ತದೆ.
೨.ಹಗಲು ತರುಣಿ ಕಾಟ ಇರುಳು ತಗಣಿ ಕಾಟ.
೩.ಬೀದಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಾಕಿದ ಮಕ್ಕಳು ಬೆಳೀತಾವೆ.
ಒಳಗೆ ಸಾಕಿದ ಮಕ್ಕಳು ಕೊಳಿತಾವೆ.
೪.ಅಳುವ ಮಕ್ಕಳಿಗೆ ಹಲಸಿನ ಹಣ್ಣಿನ ತೊಳೆ ನೀಡಿದಂತೆ.
೫. ಹಗ್ಗ ಕೊಟ್ಟು ಕೈ ಕಟ್ಟಿಸಿ ಕೊಂಡಂತೆ .
೬. ಬಾಳೆ ಹಣ್ಣು ತಿಂದವ ಬಚಾವಾದ. ಸಿಪ್ಪೆ ಎಸೆಯೋಕೆ
ಹೋದೋನು ಸಿಕ್ ಹಾಕ್ಕೊಂಡ.
೭. ಆಲುವನ್ನು ಚಿಪ್ಸ್ ನೊಡನೆ ಹೋಲಿಸುವುದು ಎಷ್ಟು ಸರಿ?
೯.ಮಾಡಿದ ಪಾಪ ನೋಡಿದವನಿಗೆ.
೧೦.ತಳಮಳದ ತೇರು ಸಾಗುವಾಗ ತಾಳ್ಮೆ ಇರಲಿ.
೧೧. ಲೋಕದಲ್ಲಿದ್ದಾಗ ಎಳನೀರು; ಲೋಕ ಬಿಟ್ಟಾಗ ಎಳ್ಳು-ನೀರು.
೧.ಯೋಚಿಸದೆ ಮಾತನಾಡುವುದು, ಮಾತಾಡದೆ ಬರೀ
ಯೋಚಿಸುವುದು ಎರಡೂ ಅಪಾಯಕರ.
೨. ನಮ್ಮ ಕೈ ಬೆರಳುಗಳು ಒಂದೇ ಅಳತೆಯದ್ದಾಗಿರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ.
ಆದರೆ ಅವು ಬಾಗಿದಾಗ ಒಂದೇ ಅಳತೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಣುತ್ತವೆ.
೩. ನದಿ ಎಷ್ಟೇ ದೂರ ಹರಿದರೂ ತಾನು ಹುಟ್ಟಿದ ಸ್ಥಳದ
ಸಂಬಂಧವನ್ನು ಎಂದೂ ಕಳೆದು ಕೊಳ್ಳುವುದಿಲ್ಲ.
೪. ಧರೆ ಬಿರಿದರೇನು? ಗಗನ ಸಿಡಿದರೇನು?
ನದಿಯುಕ್ಕಿದರೇನು?ಅಮ್ಮನ ಆಸರೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಭೀತಿ ಸುಳಿದಾಡಲು
ಸಾಧ್ಯವೇ ?
೫.ಕೆಲವರು ಗಂಟಿನ (=ಸಂಪತ್ತಿನ ) ಹಿಂದೆ ಹೊಗುತ್ತಾರೆ.
ಕೆಲವರು ಇಡೀ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಗೇ (=ಸಮಾಜಕ್ಕೆ ) ಕಗ್ಗಂಟು ಆಗುತ್ತಾರೆ.
ಕೆಲವರು ಮಾತ್ರ ಕಗ್ಗಂಟನ್ನು ಬಿಡಿಸಲು ಹರ ಸಾಹಸ ಮಾಡಿ
ಸುಧಾರಕ ಎನಿಸಿ ಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಾರೆ.



History of Delhi.

No city in India,has had as long a history as Delhi, the  capital

of India. Delhi is a land of ‘Dilwalas’ or for people with heart.

Here powerful empires have left behind their impressions

in a celebration of ritual festivities, art, music and dance.

Persian writer Firishta recorded a tradition that Delhi or Dilli

was founded by Raja Dhilu. According to Indian epic Mahabharat,

Delhi was the site of the magnificent and opulent Indraprastha,

the Capital of Pandavas, founded around 3,500BC.

Delhi is history and Delhi’s monuments are  tablets on which

the history is written.Every conqueror did his best to posses

Delhi and make it his capital.Seven times this city went through

the pain of being built  and rebuilt.

Delhi is not a single city but a combination of eight cities that

have been established here from as early as 900 B.C. to 1930 A.D…

when the British completed the construction of New Delhi as the

capital of imperial India. It is therefore not surprising that the

monuments of Delhi successfully mirror the development of

the architectural styles in the country. The city is famous for

its handicrafts. There are many cottage industries, such as

brass carving, embroidery, jewellery, bags, ivory, stationery etc.

Delhi’s gold and silver ornaments and jewellery which are famous

throughout the world, can be seen in the biggest and the richest

streets of Old Delhi called Chandni Chowk-The Silver Street.

Besides the famous  forts, towers, mosques, temples, churches,

museums and market places, Delhi is also known for its gardens

and parks. This wonderful city of  myriad expressions and interesting

juxtapositions has a lot to offer to its travellers.

The Red Fort was the palace for Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan’s

new capital Shahjahanabad, It was built in 1648A.D. Qutub Minar

is the tallest brick minaret in the world. The five storeyed minaret

is decorated with geometric designs and quranic verses.

India Gate is an arch commemorating the soldiers who died in World War

First. An eternal flame dedicated to the soldiers, burns underneath

the arch. The Humayun’s tomb was built by the orders of Hamida

Banu Begum, Humayun’s widow starting in 1562 A.D. It is the first

mughal garden tomb. Rajghat, the simple square platform of black

marble on the banks of the river Yamuna, marks the place where

Gandhiji was cremated. The Jama  Masjid is the largest and also the

grandest mosque in India.It can accommodate more than 20,000

worshippers at a time during festivals.

Birla temple is also known as the Laxmi Narayan Temple. It was

built in 1938 depicting contemporary Indian temple architecture.

Lotus Temple-27 giant white petals  of marble in the shape of an

unfolding lotus, spring from nine pools  to symbolize  the nine

unifying  spiritual paths of the Bahai Faith.

The Akshardham Temple is an imposing cultural monument

on the banks of Yamuna displaying traditional  Indian culture,

spirituality and architecture.

The Jantar Mantar was built by Sawai Jai Singh 2nd of Jaipur

in 1724 A.D. There is an amazing collection of large  masonry


New Delhi is also known as ”Lutyen’s Delhi”. In collaboration with

Herbert Baker he designed and built India Gate and Rashtrapathi

Bhavan and several other monuments in the central administrative

area of the city.


Value of the number 108.

Chinese astrology says that there are 108 sacred stars.

The Chinese Buddhists and Taoists use a 108 beads mala

(chain), which is called su-chu and has 3 dividing beads

so the mala is divided  into 3 parts of 36 each.

The Sikh tradition has a mala of 108 knots tied in a

string of wool, rather than beads.

The first manned space flight lasted 108 minutes and was

on April 12, 1961 by Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet  cosmonaut.

There are 108 forms of dance in the Indian tradition.

Atman (human soul) goes through 108 stages on its journey.

In Islam, the number 108 refers to God.

In Astrology, silver represents the moon; the atomic

weight of silver is 108. The styles of meditation are 108.

There are 108 paths to reach God.

Tantra estimates  the average number of  breaths  per day

is 21,600 of which 10,800 are solar energy and 10,800 are

lunar energy.

The diameter of the Sun is 108 times the diameter of the Earth.

The distance from the sun to the earth is 108 times the diameter

of the sun. The average distance of the moon from the earth is

108 times the distance of the diameter of the moon.

The sacred river Ganga spans a longitude of 12 degrees(79 to 91)

and a latitude of 9 degrees(22 to 31). 12 times 9 equals 108.

There are 108 Hindu deities and each of the deities has 108 names.

In the Krishna tradition, there are 108 gopis who are devotees of

Lord Krishna.

In the number 108, 1 stands for Almighty or higher Truth;

0 stands for emptiness or completeness in spiritual practice;

and 8 stands for infinity or eternity.

In Sanskrit alphabet, there are 54 letters  Each has masculine

(Shiva) and feminine (Shakti). 54 times 2 is 108.

In doing practice of counting the number of repetitions of the

mala, 100 are counted as completed. The remaining are said to

cover omissions or errors and also said to be an offering to

God and guru.

There are 108  points that define the Sri Chakra as well as the

human body.

The angles formed by 2 adjacent lines in a pentagon equals

108 degrees. stations use radio waves with frequencies from

88.0 to 108MHz to broadcast their signals.

In astrology, there are 12 constellations and 9 arc segments

called namshas or chandrakalas. 9 times  12 equals 108.

(chandra is moon and kalas are divisions within a whole).

There are 108 beads in a rosary of the Buddhists and the

Jains also.

Mukhya Shivaganas are 108 in number and hence all Shiva sects

majorly Lingayats use 108 rudraksha beaded lace for Japa

(repetition of names or prayer)

Heart chakra (wheel) consists of 108 energy lines. One of them

sushumna leads to crown chakra and is said to be the path of Self


Astronomically there are 27 constellations in our galaxy and

each one of them has 4 directions and 27×4=108.In other words

the number 108 covers the whole galaxy. According to Indian

scriptures number 9 corresponds to Lord Brahma, the creator

of the universe. Indian Vedas treat the Sun as God and the Sun

has 12 signs(Zodiac signs). In Yajurveda Sun is related with Lord

Brahma. 12×9 =108. Therefore for God’s prayer the number 108

is sacred. The maximum number of times one should recite

Jap(Mantra) are 10,800. Jap Mala consists of 108 beads.

Performing Jap 108 times( 1 jap corresponds to 1 mala

which has 108 beads)will result in 100 percent benefit.