Literature is defined as books or written works which

are considered to have creative or artistic value.

Literature refers to works of creative imagination,

including poetry, drama, fiction, journalism and in

some instances , song. It is the communication of

thoughts, ideas and feelings through the written

words. It is an artistic interpretation of the world

according to percipient’s point of views. It is a slice

of  life that has been given direction and meaning.

The word literature, literally means, ”things made

from letters” expressing ideas of universal interest.

Literature is a text, where one of the 6 features of

communication loses it’s simplicity and becomes

multiple and ambiguous.Literature is stories, poems

and plays,especially those that are considered to have

values and not just entertainment.Literature means

written works  considered of superior or lasting

artistic merit.

Critics exclude literary works from the classification

”literature”, on the grounds of poor standard of grammar

and syntax of an unbelievable or disjointed story line

or of inconsistent or unconvincing characters.

Genre fiction(for eg: romance,crime or science, fiction)

may also become excluded from consideration as literature.


Argument and discussion.

Argument generally means an angry dispute or disagreement.

Discussion implies a reasonable, civilized expression of opinion.

while argument implies hostility, raised voices etc. Both words

suggest exchange of opposing views and disagreement.

In discussion, both parties express their opinions  without getting

emotional. It’s just that they may see things differently.

In an argument, no one wins, while in a  discussion, everyone

wins. In an argument, we treat other people as opponents to be

defeated. We draw sides, defend our own positions and attack

the opposition. We are not open to new ideas or the possibility

of  changing our opinions. We listen only to find the weaknesses

in the other person’s   reasoning. We want to prove the superiority

of our  side and  the weakness of the other side. Even when we

win an argument, we usually do so by losing a potential ally.

In a discussion, we treat people as partners in a problem-solving

session. We share ideas, consider alternatives and evaluate

the pros and cons. We listen to other people’s thoughts and explore

ideas we haven’t previously considered. We learn more about the

issue, about what we think and feel and about each other’s values.

We seek people’s support, not their resentful silence. We may

passionately disagree with each other but mutual respect keeps

the discussion civil. Discussion is  conversation about a topic.

Discussion has a pleasant feeling.

Discussion explores an issue, surfaces multiple points of view

and results in a synthesis of minds that produce outcomes

greater than any single mind can put forth.

Discussion throws more light  on any issue.Discussion

ends up in knowing what is right. It accommodates each

other’s views.

Argument is to prove what I believe. Let  us always enjoy

discussion and accommodate others genuine ideas.






Prayer is communication with God.It is the human

heart before it’s maker. Prayer is appropriate all the time.

We can pray anywhere, at anytime.You don’t have to be

in a church, mosque or temple.

Prayer (Latin word  pricari) is to ask earnestly, beg or entreat.

Prayer is a solemn request for help or expression of thanks

addressed to God or  an object of worship.

Prayer can be audible or silent, private or public, formal

or informal.All prayers must be offered in faith.

Countless stories can be cited of diseases cured, exams passed

and relationship restored.There is plenty of evidence that God

answers prayers. But if we pray only to satisfy our greed and lust,

God will not answer such prayers.

Whatever you need God has the answer.

Prayer is a communication process that allows

us to talk to God.God answers each prayer in His own way.

Prayer is seeking God’s favour.

All prayers must be offered in faith.

”May God grant you always a sunbeam to warm you,

A moonbeam to charm you,

A sheltering angel, so nothing can harm you,

A laughter to cheer you,

Faithful friends near you,

And whenever you pray, Heaven to hear you.”(a Celtic prayer)

”Let no more abuses at each other be hurled;

Let words of love everywhere be heard.

Let each man’s action match his word.

May there be peace, patience and progress

Leading every man into spiritual success.”

(Poet-Dr.Venkataramana K.V.)






Collection of Quotes.

1.Every day is different but the sun is the same.

2.How does one munch iron,when one has teeth of wax?

3.Peace is the only battle worth waging.

4. Necessity has no law.

5.One man, many shades.

6.Why get caught in an embrace from which release

will be difficult?

7.The mob has many heads but no brains.

8. Woes unite foes.

9. Self love is not so vile a sin as self neglecting.

10.The success of every relationship is built on

selective acts of blindness and deafness and bouts

of forgetfulness.

11. A friend’s frown is better than a fool’s smile.

12.We have guided missiles and misguided men.

13.Marriage isn’t supposed to make you happy

and satisfied.It’s your job to make your marriage

happy and satisfying.

14.Freedom is when the people can speak;

democracy is when the government listens.

15.Democracy does not guarantee the equality

of  conditions; it only guarantees equality of


16.Distinguish between the momentary and the


17.Go to Heaven for the climate,

Hell for the company.

18.Every couple is not pair.

19.We must learn to live together as brothers or

perish together as fools.

20.We are not human beings having a spiritual

experience but spiritual beings having a human



ಕನ್ನಡ ಸುಭಾಷಿತೆಗಳು.

೧. ತುಕ್ಕು ಹಿಡಿದು ಹೋಗುವುದಕ್ಕಿಂತಲೂ ಸವೆದು ಹೋಗುವುದು ಮೇಲು.
೨. ಜಯಕ್ಕೆ ವಾರಿಸುದಾರರು ಅನೇಕ .ಸೋಲು ಮಾತ್ರ ಅನಾಥ.
೩. ರಾಜ, ಮಂತ್ರಿ, ವೈದ್ಯ ಮತ್ತು ಯತಿ ಜನರಿಗೆ ಮುಪ್ಪು ಶೋಭೆಯನ್ನು
ತಂದರೆ ವೇಶ್ಯೆ, ಜಟ್ಟಿ ಮತ್ತು ಗಾಯಕರನ್ನು ಅದು ವಿಡಂಬನೆ ಮಾಡುತ್ತದೆ.
೪. ಶ್ರಮ ಯಾರನ್ನೂ ಕೊಲ್ಲುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಆದರೆ ಚಿಂತೆ ಬಹಳಷ್ಟು ಜನರನ್ನು
ಮುಗಿಸ ಬಲ್ಲುದು.
೫.ಪ್ರಾಮಾಣಿಕರಿದ್ದಾರೆ ನಮ್ಮಲ್ಲಿ ;ಆದರೆ ಅವರು ಬೆತ್ತಲೆ ಬದುಕುವವರ
ಊರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ವಸ್ತ್ರದ ವ್ಯಾಪಾರಿಗಳಿದ್ದಂತೆ.
೬. ಒಬ್ಬನಿಗೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಗೊತ್ತಿರುವ ಗುಟ್ಟು ಯಾರಿಗೂ ಗೊತ್ತಿಲ್ಲದ ಗುಟ್ಟು.
ಇಬ್ಬರಿಗೆ ಗೊತ್ತಾದ ಗುಟ್ಟು ಅದು ರಟ್ಟಾದ ಗುಟ್ಟು.
೭. ಪ್ರೇಮ ಸ್ಪರ್ಶವಾದರೆ ವಶ;ವಿದ್ಯುತ್ ಸ್ಪರ್ಶವಾದರೆ ಶವ.
೮.ನುಡಿದರೆ ಮುತ್ತಿನ ಹಾರದಂತಿರಬೇಕು.
ಕುಡಿದರೆ ಮೆಟ್ಟಿಲು ಜಾರದಂತಿರಬೇಕು.
೯. ಉತ್ತಮ ಕಾನೂನಿದ್ದು ಕೆಟ್ಟ ಜನರಿದ್ದರೆ ಯಾವುದೇ ಪ್ರಯೋಜನವಿಲ್ಲ.
ಉತ್ತಮ ಜನರಿದ್ದು ಕೆಟ್ಟ ಕಾನೂನಿದ್ದರೆ ಯಾವುದೇ ತೊಡಕಿಲ್ಲ.
೧೦. ಬುದ್ಧಿ ಮತ್ತು ಭಾವ ಸಮ ಪ್ರಮಾಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಾಗಿದರೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಅದಕ್ಕೆ
ಅರ್ಥ ಬರುತ್ತದೆ. ಇಂದು ಬುದ್ಧಿ ಮಾತ್ರ ಮುಂದಕ್ಕೆ ಓಡುತ್ತಿದೆ.
ಭಾವ ಜಡವಾಗುತ್ತಿದೆ.

Do You Know?

1.Denmark is the happiest country in the world.

India ranked 122 out of 155 countries in the world.

2.It is said that carpet was a handicraft of Iran.

The messengers of  Islam and traders of Iran came

to India and brought equipments of weaving carpets

along with raw materials. They made carpets and

also taught the Indians.

3.Card playing was introduced by the Chinese before

1000 AD. They reached Europe around 1360 from

Mameluke empire of Egypt.There is another theory

according to which roving Gypsies introduced them to

Europe, as they journeyed from village to village side

show and entertaining.Puritans called them ”Devil’s

tickets” and ”devil picture book.”

4.If a person slants the words to the right, he is an

extrovert, expressive and emotional in nature. If he

slants to the left, then he is an introvert and emotionally


5.The Great Wall of China, built by  Ming dynasty in the

15th and 16th century stretches about 2,400 kilometres

along China’s northern border.

6.Mount Mauna Kea in Hawai is the tallest mountain on

the earth (10203 Metre)when you measure the distance between its base

and its peak. Everest’s claim to be the world’s tallest mountain

is based on the fact that its summit is the highest point

(8,848 metres)above sea level on the earth’s surface.

7.”Come”  means ”less” in Hindi and ”more” means a ”peacock” in Hindi.

8.December 21 is the longest night of the year, before the days begin to

grow longer again. Romans worshipped  the birthday of the Sun

on December 25 for winning  over the darkness of winter. Pope

Julius Ist declared in 351AD, that the birth of Jesus would be

celebrated on the 25th December. The first recorded date of

Christmas being celebrated on December 25th was in 336 AD,

during the time of the Roman Emperor Constantine, who was

the first Christian Roman Emperor.


ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್ ಮತ್ತು ನಮ್ಮ ಸ್ವಾಸ್ಥ್ಯ.

ಇಂದು ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್ ಗಳು ನಮ್ಮ ಸ್ವಾಸ್ಥ್ಯ ಮತ್ತು ಸುರಕ್ಷಿತತೆಗೆ
ಹಾನಿಕಾರಕವೆನ್ನುವ ಆಪಾದನೆಗಳು ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಕೇಳಿ
ಬರುತ್ತಿವೆ. ನಿಜ ಹೇಳಬೇಕೆಂದರೆ ಒಂದಾನೊಂದು ದಿನ ನಮ್ಮ
ಪ್ರಾಣ ಉಳಿಸಬಲ್ಲುದಾದ ರಕ್ತವನ್ನು ನಮಗೆ ರವಾನಿಸುವ ಪದಾರ್ಥ
ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್ಕೇ ಆಗಿದೆ. ಇಂದಿನ ದಿನ ನಮ್ಮ ಪ್ರಾಣ ಉಳಿಸಲು ಹೋರಾಡುವ
ಡಾಕ್ಟರ್ ಗಳು ಅವಲಂಬಿಸಿರುವುದಾದರೂ ಏನನ್ನು?ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್ ಸಿರಿಂಜ್ ಗಳು,
ಹೃದಯ ಕವಾಟಗಳು, ಕೆಥೀಟರ್(catheter)ಗಳು ಹಾಗೂ ಟ್ಯೂಬ್ ಗಳು.
ಆಹಾರ ಸಾಮಗ್ರಿ ಹಾಗೂ ಔಷಧಿಗಳನ್ನು ಪ್ಯಾಕ್(pack) ಮಾಡಲು ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್
ಬಳಸಿದಲ್ಲಿ ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಅಪಾಯಕಾರಿಯಾದ cross contamination (ಒಂದರಿಂದ
ಇನ್ನೊಂದಕ್ಕೆ ತಗಲುವ ಸೋಂಕು) ಹಾಗೂ ಬ್ಯಾಕ್ಟೀರಿಯಾದ ಹರಡುವಿಕೆ
ತಡೆಗಟ್ಟಲ್ಪಡುತ್ತದೆ. ಹಾಲು ಮತ್ತು ಕುಡಿಯುವ ನೀರನ್ನು ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್ ಸುರಕ್ಷಿತವಾಗಿ
ಇರಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ವಾಸ್ತವವಾಗಿ ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್ ಮೇಲಿನ ದೋಷಾರೋಪಣೆ ಸರಿಯಲ್ಲ.
ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್ ತಪ್ಪಿತಸ್ಥ ಅಲ್ಲ. ಬದಲಿಗೆ ಅವು ಮಹಾ ರಕ್ಷಕ. ನಮ್ಮ ದೈನಂದಿನ
ಜೀವನದಲ್ಲಿ ವಿವಿಧ ಶ್ರೇಣಿಯ ಬಳಕೆಗೆ ಬೇಕಾಗುವ ಇವು ಇಂದು ಅಮೂಲ್ಯ
ವಾದುವು ಎಂದರೆ ಅತಿಶಯೋಕ್ತಿ ಯಾಗದು.
ಇಂದಿನ ತಾಂತ್ರಿಕತೆಯ ಮೂಲಕ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಗೆಯ ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್ ಗಳನ್ನೂ ರಿಸೈಕಲ್
(recycle)ಮಾಡಬಹುದಾಗಿದೆ. ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್ ಗಳು ಪ್ರದೂಷಣೆ
ಮಾಡುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ನಾವು ಮಾನವರು ಆ ಕಾರ್ಯ ಮಾಡುತ್ತೇವೆ.
ನಮ್ಮ ಜೀವನದ ಆವಶ್ಯಕತೆಗಳನ್ನು ವಿಭಿನ್ನ ಸ್ವರೂಪದ
ಉಪಯುಕ್ತತೆ ಗಳಿಂದ ಸಂಪನ್ನಗೊಳಿಸುವ ಸಾಮಗ್ರಿಯಾದ
ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್ ನ ಕುರಿತು ನಮ್ಮಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರತಿಯೊಬ್ಬರ ಧೋರಣೆಯೂ
ಬದಲಾಗುವುದು ಅಗತ್ಯ.
ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್ ಇಲ್ಲದೆ ಜೀವನ ಅಸಾಧ್ಯ. ಪ್ಲಾಸ್ಟಿಕ್ ನೊಂದಿಗೆ ಬದುಕಿರಿ
ಹೊಣೆಗಾರಿಕೆ ಯೊಂದಿಗೆ.
ಮೂಲ:ಸಂಗ್ರಹ.(Indian centre for plastic in the environment)